After a year of teaching, he returned to Harvard to finish his studies. Gordon W. Allport. At this point in psychology history, behaviorism had become the dominant force in the United States, and psychoanalysis remained a powerful influence. His father was a country doctor, which meant that Gordon grew up with his father’s patients and nurses and all the paraphernalia of a miniature hospital. His work as a teacher also had a profound effect on some of his students, including Stanley Milgram, Jerome S. Bruner, Leo Postman, Thomas Pettigrew, and Anthony Greenwald. ALLPORT, GORDON WILLARD. Gordon W. Allport’s The Nature of Prejudice is one of the most influential works ever written in the field of psychology. His most significant contributions include a theory of personality, which highlighted the self and the proprium, the latter defined as ‘all the regions of our life that we regard as peculiarly ours’ (see Becoming, 1955 As one of the founding figures of personality psychology, his lasting influence is still felt today. By Floyd H. Allport & Gordon W. Allport (1921) First Published in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 16, 6-40. Encyclopaedia Britannica. During his childhood, his father used the family home to house and treat patients. Vol 5. Personality: a Psychological Interpretation. Review of General Psychology.2002;6(2):139-152. doi:10.1037//1089-2680.6.2.139. Here are some of Allport's works for further reading: Ever wonder what your personality type means? Trivia He divided human traits into three distinct categories: cardinal traits that dominate an individual's personality, central traits are shared across the majority of the population, and secondary traits which are unique to the individuals. His mother was a schoolteacher and his father was a doctor who instilled in Allport a strong work ethic. Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Born in Indiana in 1897, Gordon Allport was one of four children. Allport viewed the experience as an attempt by Freud to turn a simple observation into an analysis of Allport's supposed unconscious memory of his own childhood. After compiling a list of 4,504 ​different traits, he organized them into three different trait categories, including: Allport died on October 9, 1967. Updated November 7, 2019. The less than adequate hospital facilities in Cleveland required that Allport’s father allow doctors, nurses, and patients to reside in the home with the family. Explore Gordon Allport's biography, personal life, family and cause of death. He went on to define personality as “the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environment.” Let us look at this … Gordon Allport's landmark book, The nature of prejudice, defined the field of intergroup relations for social psychologists as the study of prejudice and its effects on group interactions. Corrections? His last important work was Pattern and Growth in Personality (1961). I. Gordon Allport has been recognized for his work in the field of personality psychology, which was instituted as an autonomous psychological discipline since 1920. Gordon Allport is a pioneering figure in the field of personality psychology. It can be generally stated that traits are merely names for observed regularities in behaviour, but do…. Gordon Allport was a very well-known American psychologist who laid the foundations for personality psychology. “Philosophically speaking, values are the termini of our intentions. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston; 1937. Gordon Allport, in full Gordon Willard Allport, (born November 11, 1897, Montezuma, Indiana, U.S.—died October 9, 1967, Cambridge, Massachusetts), American psychologist and educator who developed an original theory of personality. During his childhood, his father used the family home to house and treat patients. Gordon Allport was a pioneering psychologist often referred to as one of the founders of personality psychology. Discover the real story, facts, and details of Gordon Allport. Allport pioneered research on human personality. The U.S. sociologist Tamotsu Shibutani agreed, contending that rumour abounds when the demand for news is greater than is…, According to Allport’s 1937 textbook, traits represent structures or habits within a person and are not the construction of observers; they are the product of both genetic predispositions and experience. Gordon W. Allport (1897-1967). Freud studied Allport for a moment and then asked, "And was that little boy you?". According to his personality theories every individual is unique and so his personality and his personality should be analyzed in the present circumstances and context rather than the past as personality continuously evolves rather than remaining stagnant throughout the lifetime. He was born on November 11, 1897 in Montezuma, Indiana, USA His father was a physician while his mother was a teacher The youngest child of 4 brothers He married a clinical psychologist 4. In the 1950s, Gordon Allport introduced the intergroup-contact hypothesis. During his childhood, Allport and his siblings were immersed in the medical profession and often acted as clinical assistants to their father. After earning his bachelor's degree in philosophy and economics from Harvard in 1919, Allport traveled to Istanbul, Turkey, to teach philosophy and economics. Allport operated his own printing business during his teen years and … During his first year at Harvard, he taught what was most likely the first personality psychology class offered in the United States. He was one of the first psychologists to focus on the study of personality. Gordon Allport identified personality traits as fitting into three levels within a hierarchy. Harvard University; Department of Psychology. He was the youngest of four brothers and was often described as shy, but also hard-working and studious. Research on Predjudice and Discrimination Gordon Willard Allport spent nearly his entire academic career at Harvard, completing both his bachelor’s degree and his PhD at the university, and serving as a faculty member from 1930 – 1967. Gordon Allport contributed a significant theory of prejudice and discrimination, discussed in his book, The Nature of Prejudice (Allport). Do You Know Any Little Known of Famous Psychologists? The personality Has always been studied in the field of psychology. The Nature and Criteria of Personality. Behaviorism, on the other hand, Allport believed, did not dig deeply enough. Allport called this concept functional autonomy. Allport, Gordon W. (1897–1967) A leading American social psychologist who became head of the Harvard Department of Psychology in 1938. Gordon Allport was one of the pioneer trait theorists who attempted to list the traits that make an individual’s personality. Carl Jung Had an Affair With One of His Patients. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Allport operated his own printing business during his teen years and served as the editor of his high school newspaper. Allport held what theories in concerned with historical facts rather than functional facts Freud's pleasure principle and the drive-reduction hypothesis of stimulus-response psychology. Allport was one of the first psychologists to focus on the study of the personality, and is often referred to as one of the founding figures of personality psychology. Updates? Gordon Allport's Impact on Psychology of the Personality, Ⓒ 2020 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved. Until fairly recently, few people were familiar with … Omissions? Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. He also made important contributions to… The book was written by Gordon Allport in the early 1950s and first published by Addison-Wesley in 1954. Full name : Gordon Allport How old is Gordon Allport: 70 years Male 🎂 Birthday: November 11, 1897 🔯 Sun sign: Scorpio 🌍 Nationality: Indiana, United States Gordon Allport Education: harvard university, glenville high school; Gordon Allport siblings: Floyd Henry Allport #Youtube: Gordon Allport Youtube #Twitter: Gordon Allport Twitter Gordon Allport is a pioneering figure in the field of personality psychology. Allport's approach to human psychology combined the empirical influence of the behaviorists with the acknowledgment that unconscious influences could also play a role in human behavior. In his work, this psychologist is responsible for emphasizing the singularity of individual human behavior. His approach favoured emphasis on the problems of the adult personality rather than on those of infantile emotions and experiences. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston; 1961. Although Allport recognized the emotional, social, economic, and historic dimensions of prejudice, he also proposed that prejudice is partly an outgrowth of normal human functioning. Allport theorized that the child had acquired the behavior from his mother, who appeared to be very domineering. With profound insight into the complexities of the human experience, Harvard psychologist Gordon Allport organized a mass of research to produce a landmark study on the roots and nature of prejudice. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. His family moved to Cleveland, Ohio, when Allport was six years old, and he was raised in the same home out of which his father practiced medicine. In: Boring GE, Lindzey G, eds. The Century Psychology Series. The Nature of Prejudice by Gordon W. Allport (1954) Foreword to the 1st Chinese Edition Gordon Allport’s The Nature of Prejudice is without peer. The self, he contended, is an identifiable organization within each individual and accounts for the unity of personality, higher motives, and continuity of personal memories. In this view, intergroup contact under positive conditions can reduce social prejudice. Rather than focusing on the psychoanalytic and behavioral approaches that were popular during his time, Allport instead chose to utilize an eclectic approach. Gordon Allport (1897 – 1967) was a well-respected and influential American scholar in the psychology field. Allport began working at Harvard in 1924 and later left to accept a position at Dartmouth. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Appointed a social science instructor at Harvard University in 1924, he became professor of psychology six years later and, in the last year of his life, professor of social ethics. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Gordon-W-Allport, How Stuff Works - Health - Gordon W. Allport, “Personality: A Psychological Interpretation”. The experience would later serve as a reminder that psychoanalysis tended to dig too deeply. Being an early pioneer of the study of traits, he is known as a trait psychologist. After high school followed his older brother Floyd through the same educational path. Read our, How Cardinal Traits Are Used to Describe Someone's Personality. Today, he is perhaps best remembered for his contributions to the trait theory of personality. His mother was a schoolteacher and his father was a doctor who instilled in Allport a strong work ethic. Gordon Allport was born in Montezuma, Indiana, in 1897, the youngest of four brothers. November 11 Horoscope. ( b. Montezuma, Indiana, 11 November 1897; d. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 9 October 1967) psychology, psychology of personality, social psychology. Posted March 2000. Appointed a social science instructor at Harvard University in 1924, he became professor of psychology six years later and, in the last year of his life, … He was one of the first psychologists to focus on the study of personality. Allport stresses that this hostile attitude is not merely a hasty prejudgment before one knows the facts. In an essay entitled "Pattern and Growth in Personality," Allport recounted his experience of meeting psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. He was the youngest of four brothers and was often described as shy, but also hard-working and studious. There are cardinal traits, central traits, and secondary traits that each person has with their personality. A History of Psychology in Autobiography. He contributed to the formation of values scales and rejected both a psychoanalytic approach to personality, which he thought often was too deeply interpretive, and a behavioral approach, which he thought did not provide deep enough interpretations from their data. Gordon Allport was born in Montezuma, Indiana, on November 11, 1897. Thomas F. Pettigrew and Kerstin Hammann selected, as the book's most lasting contribution, its success in redefining the relation between intergroup contact and prejudice. Allport came from a working family that valued health and education. No contribution of its kind existed prior to its appearance in 1954. As a child he felt different from others, both in his childhood play and his interests. He consistently related his approach to the study of personality to his social interests and was one of a growing number of psychologists who sought to introduce the leavening influence of humanism into psychology. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! In Becoming (1955) he stressed the importance of self and the uniqueness of adult personality. Gordon Willard Allport was an American psychologist. Known as the “patron saint” of personality psychologists (Eysenck, 1990, p. 3), Allport was a major figure in American “personality” psychology. Gordon Allport was born in Montezuma, Indiana, on November 11, 1897. And each one of t… He began developing this theory by going through a dictionary and noting every term he found that described a personality trait. He organized existing knowledge about societal, Being an early pioneer of the study of traits, he is known as a trait psychologist. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Allport is perhaps best known for his trait theory of personality. NOW 50% OFF! Around the middle of the twentieth century, Gordon Allport’s contact hypothesis proposed that groups could reduce their biases toward each other through contact as long as certain conditions were met. Gordon Allport, in full Gordon Willard Allport, (born November 11, 1897, Montezuma, Indiana, U.S.—died October 9, 1967, Cambridge, Massachusetts), American psychologist and educator who developed an original theory of personality. Gordon Allport. -Gordon Allport-Interesting facts about Type B personality. Allport GW. When he was 22, Allport traveled to Vienna, Austria, to meet the famous psychoanalyst. We never fully achieve them.” ― … Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Instead, Allport chose to reject both psychoanalysis and behaviorism and embraced his own unique approach to personality. His important introductory work on the theory of personality was Personality: A Psychological Interpretation (1937). First published in 1954, The Nature of Prejudice remains the standard work on discrimination. Allport is best known for the concept that, although adult motives develop from infantile drives, they become independent of them. The relationship between prejudice and categorical thinking was first systematically explored by Gordon Allport (1954) in his classic book The Nature of Prejudice. This resulted in Allport developing a great interest in understanding human motivation, impulses, and personality, resulting in his trait theory of personality. Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. He rejected two of the dominant schools of thought in psychology at the time, psychoanalysis and behaviorism, in favor of his own approach that stressed the importance of individual differences and situational variables. Gordon Allport was born in Indiana, the youngest of four boys. While it may have been defined in many ways, Gordon Allport defined traits as “a generalized neuropsychic system (peculiar to an individual), with the capacity to render many stimuli functionally equivalent, and to initiate and guide consistent (equivalent) forms of adaptive and expressive behavior”. What the Trait Theory Says About How Our Personalities Are Composed, Wilhelm Wundt Profile: The Father of Psychology, A Brief Biography of Social Psychologist Stanley Milgram, How Personality Influences Behavior, According to Psychology, G. Stanley Hall's Important Contributions to Psychology, Biography of Applied Psychologist Hugo Münsterberg, Sigmund Freud's Remarkable Life and Legacy in Psychology, 10 Things You Might Not Know About Sigmund Freud, B. F. Skinner: The Life of Psychology's Radical Behaviorist, Life and Career of Psychologist Raymond Cattell, The Life and Theories of Psychologist William James, How Erik Erikson's Own Identity Crisis Shaped His Theories, How Psychoanalysis Influenced the Field of Psychology, Daily Tips for a Healthy Mind to Your Inbox.

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